HM was one of the most studied memory cases to date and started the examination of neurological structures in relation to memory. Retrograde amnesia (RA) is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred or information that was learned in the past. Experimental studies of memory impairment after electroconvulsive therapy. de Hoz, L., Martin, S. J., & Morris, R. G. M. (2004).   This describes a problem encoding, storing, or retrieving information that can be used in the future. Millin, P. M., Moody, E. W., & Riccio, D. C. (2001).  Thus, the brain can learn to be independent of the impaired hippocampus, but only to a certain extent. A. Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) is a state of confusion that occurs immediately following a traumatic brain injury in which the injured person is disoriented and unable to remember events that occur after the injury. It is caused by an injury or the onset of a disease. Der Gedächtnisverlust bezieht sich auf einen (zumeist kurzen) Zeitraum vor dem bestimmten Ereignis, ein Patient kann sich beispielsweise nicht mehr an einen Unfallhergang erinnern. Brockenweise kommen Erinnerungen an seine Vergangenheit zurück, wenn er sich durch Objekte und Orte an vergangene Erlebnisse erinnert fühlt. Squire, L. R. (1986). Tulving, E., & Markowitsch, H. J. Hardman, J. M., & Manoukian, A. In many cases, an autopsy helps identify the exact brain region affected and the extent of the damage that caused RA once the patient has died.  Memory functions as affected by electroconvulsive therapy. Der retrograden Amnesie liegt wahrscheinlich eine Störung des episodischen oder deklarativen Gedächtnis zugrunde, das im Hippocampus, im Diencephalon und im Temporallappen lokalisiert ist. (2000). ): Gedächtnisstörung#Retrograde Gedächtnisstörung, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Retrograde_Amnesie&oldid=175033577, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“. The reminder effect consists of re-exposing the patient to past personal information, which cannot reverse RA. Kolb, B., & Whishaw, I. (1960). Brain plasticity and behavior. Fujii, T., Yamadori, A., Endo, K., Suzuki, K., & Fukatsu, R. (1999). Comparative localization of two forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase and their mRNAs in rat brain supports the concept of functional differences between the forms. Ottosson, J-O. , Isolated RA is associated with a visible thalamic lesion. Functional retrograde amnesia: A multiple case study. Es gab nämlich keine Person, die ihn kannte oder ihm beim Erinnern helfen konnte. Interpretations of retrograde amnesia: Old problems redux. Each case of RA has led to different symptoms and durations, where some patients have exhibited an inability to describe future plans, whether in the near future (e.g., this afternoon) or in the distant future (e.g., next summer) because of their inability to consolidate memories. Hunkin, N., Parkin, A., Bradley, V., Burrows, E., Aldrich, F., Jansari, A., & Burdon-Cooper, C. (1995) Focal retro grade amnesia following closed head injury: A case study and theoretical account. The temporal lobe, which holds the hippocampus, entorhinal, perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices, has a reciprocal connection with the neocortex.  It tends to negatively affect episodic, autobiographical, and declarative memory, while keeping procedural memory intact without increasing difficulty for learning new information.  The type of information that is forgotten can range from a specific memory, such as a single event, or a more general memory.  This could be described as a psychogenic form of amnesia with mild anterograde and retrograde loss. , Recent research has begun to investigate the effects of stress and fear-inducing situations with the onset of RA. (1986). von lateinisch: retro - rückwärts, zurück Focal retrograde amnesia for autobiographical events following cerebral vasculitis: A connectionist account. The common studied causes of RA do not always lead to the onset of RA. Kwan, D., Carson, N., Addis, D. R., & Rosenbaum, R. S. (2010). Damage can be limited to the CA1 field of the hippocampus, causing very limited RA for about one to two years. Yarnell, P. R., & Lynch, S. (2007). Cherkin, A. W.H. In. Als mögliche Auslöser kommen in Frage: Der Gedächtnisverlust bezieht sich meist nur auf einen kurzen Zeitraum vor dem bestimmten Ereignis. , These patients' regular diet consists mostly of hard alcohol intake, which lacks the necessary nutrients for healthy development and maintenance. AMN escaped a small fire in his house, did not inhale any smoke, and had no brain damage. Reed, J. M., & Squire, L. R. (1998). For example, Henry Molaison (HM) was someone with significant brain damage and participated in a lot of neurological research. who had unilateral removal of the medial areas in the left temporal lobe.. Retrograde amnesia and memory consolidation: A neurobiological perspective. Retrograde amnesia is caused by damage to the memory-storage areas of the brain, in various brain regions.  Consistent with other forms of RA, the isolated form is marked by the inability to recall past information. The degree to which different patients recover from RA differs in time (some take a few days while others a few decades) and content (some will only remember certain specific instances while others more). In extreme cases, individuals may completely forget who they are. Hippocampal volume in adolescent-onset alcohol use disorder. Strange, B.  The onset of psychogenic amnesia can be either global (i.e., individual forgets all history) or situation specific (i.e., individual is unable to retrieve memories of specific situations). Die genauen Ursachen der retroraden Amnesie sind zur Zeit (2014) ein Forschungsgegenstand. Levine, B., Black, S. E., Cabeza, R., Sinden, M., Mcintosh, A. R., Toth, J. P., Tulving, E., & Stuss, D. T. (1998). Kolb, B., & Gibb, R. (2003). Several tests exist, for example, testing for factual knowledge such as known public events. An emotion-induced retrograde amnesia in humans is amygdala- and β-adrenergic-dependent. There are some aspects essential to the patient that remain unaffected by RA.  In cases of sudden rapid acceleration, the brain continues moving around in the skull, harming brain tissue as it hits internal protrusions. , Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as post-traumatic amnesia, occurs from an external force that causes structural damage to the brain, such as a sharp blow to the head, a diffuse axonal injury, or childhood brain damage (e.g., shaken baby syndrome).  Thus, reminding the patient about details of their life has no scientific bearings on recovering memory. The AMI was created by Kopelman, Wilson, and Baddeley (1990). , Infections that pass the blood–brain barrier can cause brain damage (encephalitis), sometimes resulting in the onset of RA. The role of diencephalic pathology in human memory disorder: Evidence from a penetrating paranasal brain injury. , Pure retrograde amnesia (PRA) refers to the behavioral syndrome that is characterized by the inability to retrieve remote information in the face of a normal ability to learn new information, with no other ecological or psychometric evidence of cognitive impairment. DH relearned his childhood memories from his parents and can retell the stories, but cannot recall specifics other than what has been told to him.. The severity of his condition caused him to undergo surgery in an effort to prevent his seizures. Gedächtnis. In the case of patient 'SS', the infection led to focal or isolated retrograde amnesia where there was an absence of or limited AA. Other forms of amnesia exist and may be confused with RA.  However, episodic memory, which refers to one's life experiences, is impaired. (1990). McEntee, W. J., & Mair, R. G. (1990). However, since most cases differ in onset, duration, and content forgotten, this task has shown to be a rather complex one. Wolf, J.A., Stys, P. K., Lusardi, T., Meaney, D., & Smith, D. H. (2001).  All living people who participate are referred to in literature using only their initials to protect privacy.
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