Battle of Marathon Facts The Battle of Marathon was a major battle in the Greek-Persian Wars (499-479 BC). What really happened during the battle? It was actually a revolt attempted by Ionia to overthrow the Persian Empire. There are numerous legends associated with the battle including that of the famous runner The generals were evenly … This version of events was propagated when the marathon run, a distance of 25 miles, was introduced at the first modern Olympic Games. You missed the pages 2 and 3 at the end of first 10 facts. There are several theories about this Athenian attack, one of which says that the Persian cavalry was sent by ships to attack the undefended Athens and that the cavalry sailed to Athens around Cape Sounion. 19. Polemarch Callimachus died from Greek side. Apart from the 10 generals, there was polemarch or War-Archon called Callimachus. Know more about the causes, events, effects and legends of the historic battle through these 10 interesting facts. Battle of Marathon Facts In 490 BC ancient Greece was under attack by the seemingly unstoppable Persian Empire. Athenians saw the Persians making a move and decided to go for a tactical offensive by attacking the Persians. Herodotus, however, relates that a trained runner, Pheidippides (also spelled Phidippides, or Philippides), was sent from Athens to Sparta before the battle in order to request assistance from the Spartans; he is said to have covered about 150 miles (240 km) in about two days. Athens was supported by a small force from the city of Platea. The Persian archers did shoot arrows but the Greeks were protected by their armor and they eventually managed to collide head-on with the Persian forces. 17. 240 Lion Facts That You Should Learn Today. I learned a lot from it. Thoth was an ancient Egyptian god of the moon, wisdom, writing, magic, judgment, balance and the dead. You have entered an incorrect email address! Four of the generals then ceded their commands to the Athenian general Miltiades, thus effectively making him commander in chief. All Rights Reserved. Also, Athenian general Miltiades is credited for devising tactics in which there were more soldiers in the flanks than at the centre; and for convincing the polemarch to attack at the suitable moment. I don’t give any amount with less than 6 zeros. 25. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you accept their use. The Athenian army marched at a rapid pace from Marathon to Athens, some 40 kilometers (25 miles), to prevent the attack and complete the Athenian victory. The fleet sent by Darius consisted of 600 triremes (a type of ancient warship). Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The battle proved the superiority of the Greek long spear, sword, and armour over the Persians’ weapons. In the ensuing battle, the Greek wings routed the Persian flanks to surround the Persian centre, which had been more successful against Greek’s thin centre. The Persians landed approximately 25 miles (40.2 kilometers) north of Athens at the bay of Marathon where they were met by the Greek army. Battle of Marathon marked the end of the first Persian invasion of Greece with their force retreating to Asia. The generals were evenly divided on whether to await the Persians or to attack them, and the tie was broken by a civil official, Callimachus, who decided in favour of an attack. The Battle of Marathon is considered a pivotal moment in European history as the following two centuries saw a rise in the Classical Greek civilization which was highly influential in shaping western society. We are glad you liked the facts and found them useful. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Marathon, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Battle of Marathon. We use our own and third party cookies to improve your experience and our services; and to analyze your use of our website. The Greeks used their famous Phalanx formation at the Battle of Marathon. Some historians believe that this kind of tactical thinking was absent in Greeks in that era and hence, this formation was possibly not made right at the beginning. Omissions? 6,400 Persian bodies were counted on the battlefield; Athens lost just 192 men and Plataea 11. The Phalanx and Hoplon proved to be very effective against the foreign Persians who were not accustomed to them. Battle of Marathon, (September 490 bce), in the Greco-Persian Wars, decisive battle fought on the Marathon plain of northeastern Attica in which the Athenians, in a single afternoon, repulsed the first Persian invasion of Greece. 23. So, before you come and say that there aren’t all the points as promised, kindly consider looking around a bit harder. The Persian army initially broke through the Greek formation at the center but the Greek forces at the flanks managed to overpower the Persian flanks and surrounded the Persians at the center. According to Herodotus, 6,400 Persian soldiers were killed and many more died in swaps while the Athenians only lost 192 of their men and 11 more from Plataeans. The remaining that ran towards their ships were pursued by the Athenians and many were slaughtered. This led to the First Persian invasion of Greece which began in 492 BC. The Battle of Marathon remains one of the most important military clashes in history. The first Persian invasion of Greece can be divided into two campaigns. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The battle took place in 490 B.C. 29. If Herodotus’ account is true then the tribes Leontis and Antiochis stayed back at the battlefield under the command of General Aristides and the remaining Greek forces returned to Athens and were there just in time to prevent the Persian landing and thereby forcing the Persians to return. The Greek army decisively defeated the more numerous Persians, marking a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars. By the time the routed Persians reached their ships, they had lost 6,400 men; the Greeks lost 192 men, including Callimachus. It is considered a highly significant event in European history which allowed the Classical Greek civilization to flourish. Battle of Marathon was the first major victory of Greece over the Persian Empire and proved to be a turning point in the Greco-Persian Wars. after which Darius I started plans to invade and subjugate Greece and eventually launching an invasion in 490 B.C. The Persian navy sailed to Attica and landed on a bay located near the Marathon town. It is being said that Pheidippides ran non-stop and so fast that when he eventually reached Athens and delivered the message, he collapsed to death. Miltiades eventually decided to meet with polemarch Callimachus and managed to earn his support/vote in favor of engaging the Persian army. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Modern historians believe that the infantry was sized in the range of 20,000 – 100,000, with 25,000 the most probable figure; while estimates for the cavalry are in the range of 1,000 – 3,000. After capturing and destroying the island Naxos, the coastal town Karystos and their first major target Eretria; the Persian forces landed at the bay of Marathon, around 25 miles (40 km) from Athens. Miltiades was aware of this and ordered the Greek troops to form a ‘double envelopment’ or ‘pincer’ formation. Ancient sources give the figures as high as 200,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. The Battle of Marathon was fought between an Athenian army aided by a small force from Plataea and the invading Persian force of Emperor Darius I. Greek victory in the battle ended the first Persian invasion of Greece which had been successful till then. Since the Athenians took a strong defensive position at Marathon, the Persians were also reluctant to attack first. Pop art includes imagery from popular culture, such as, advertising, cartoons, news etc. It was fought between the Athenians and the Persians. 21. Athenians even captured 7 Persian ships and thereby decisively defeating the far superior Persian army. Sparta declined to help until the full moon was up. Athenians realized that Spartan army could come for help only after 10 days during which they had to hold the Persians at Marathon bay. Pheidippides, the greatest runner of Athens, was sent to Sparta for help. 1. as opposed to elitist culture. Used This for History Fair… Loved the info! Thx u helped me get answers for my school. The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria supported the revolt during which parts of the region were burnt by the Greeks including Persian temples in the cities. The first campaign took place in, #3 The Persian forces were led by Artaphernes and Datis, Darius gave the command of the second campaign of the Persian invasion to, #4 Sparta declined to help Athens as the festival of Carneia was taking place, After capturing and destroying the island, #5 The Athenian army was assisted by a force of 1,000 Plataeans, #6 There were five days of stalemate before the actual battle took place, To face the massive Persian army, Athens had to send all its soldiers to Marathon which meant the city couldn’t defend an attack and loss at Marathon would effectively mean a complete defeat of Athens. You should have asked for 20 million at least. 16. The only additional force Athens had were 1,000 Plataean hoplites. The Battle of Marathon took place in September 490 BC on the plain of Marathon. just one question where is the cited page. Miltiades realized that the Persian cavalry was absent and decided to attack. However, Darius I, king of the Persian Empire, vowed to punish Athens and Eretria for their involvement in the revolt. His maiden novella “Teicos” is a thoughtful depiction of the development of society and is awaiting publication. We always deliver what is promised by the title of the article. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. We are glad that we could be of some use. Sorry, can’t help. Not only did its result signal the beginning of the “Golden Age of Greece”, but it was also a key moment in the rise of western civilisation and one of its key espoused values: democracy. In August or September of 490 BC the Persians sent their fleet down the coast of Greece to attack the Greek city-state of Athens. 12. All these factors are often cited as being responsible for the resounding victory of Greece against a numerically superior enemy. In addition to strategoi, there was a polemarch or war-leader that had the casting vote. For the first 5 days, the Greek and the Persian armies faced each other without making any move. my name is tymothy adad could u send me 20,000 dollars to help my sick aunt, diagnosed with wussidious. Also, after the battle, it is said the Persian fleet sailed around Cape Sounion to attack Athens directly. The remaining 8 tribes were at the flanks of the Greek defense in depth of eight ranks. 15. © 2020 | Facts Legend | A Unit of Akṣa Ventures. The Persian force retreated to Asia. There are many questions like these. 8. At that time, Sparta was celebrating the festival of Carneia. The strength of the Athenian force is considered to be around 10,000. It can be rightly called a decisive battle that shaped the development of modern European Culture through the defeat of the invading Persian Army. He was in charge of the overall Athenian army and was elected by citizen body of Athens. The strength of the Persian army cannot be stated with certainty. To face the massive Persian army, Athens had to send all its soldiers to Marathon which meant the city couldn’t defend an attack and loss at Marathon would effectively mean a complete defeat of Athens. Darius gave the command of the second campaign of the Persian invasion to Artaphernes, his nephew; and Datis, a Median admiral of the Persian Empire. Fought on a plain near the town of Marathon in the Greek region of Attica, an Athenian force of about 10,000 Greeks led by Miltiades utterly defeated a Persian force of 12,000 to 90,000 men led by Datis.
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