chinese speaking farsi

Cleaves, ‘The Historicity of the Baljuna Covenant,’ Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, XVIII (1955): 357–421, at pp.396–97, 403. Since it is also clear that many of the non-Muslim Semu ren were Turks, it is obvious that Turks greatly outnumbered Persians in the Yuan empire. Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective (Cambridge: University Press, 1991), p.54; see p.53 for Bregel’s definition of ‘Central Asia’, which seems not to include modern Xinjiang. [153] It seems to me, however, that a language used for a diplomatic communication with a foreign dignitary need not have been one that was any kind of lingua franca in the place of issue. Of course, it is entirely possible that genuine objects could be found in such circumstances. The Seljuqs, who were, of course, Turks, had conquered Iran in the mid-eleventh century, and ruled there until about 1200. In the fall of 2011, a pilot program of Farsi was initiated at Georgia Tech at the request of the Iranian Student Association of Georgia Tech and some twenty Iranian faculty members. The name is a version of Xianyang 咸陽. This is almost certainly untrue, for dumplings (jiaozi 餃子, 角子)[297] seem to have existed in China before the Mongol invasions. [243] However, as has already been noted above, Turkic was being written with the Perso-Arabic script at the court of Güyük Qa’an, in Mongolia, as early as 1246. The question of Marco’s use of the word ‘lion’, for what were clearly tigers, is a similar red herring. Sidorovich, ‘Zhu you Hanzide Buhuala qianbi xin kao’ 鑄有漢字的不花剌錢币新考, Zhongguo qianbi/China Numismatics 100 (2008.1): 21–24. Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section Low Blood Sugar - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF [70] For Marco to be able to make such a comparison would, of course, require him to have a good knowledge of Turkic. Interactive Speaking Visual Thirteen-Language Dictionary: Arabic, Chinese, English, Farsi (Persian), French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish and Turkish. In 1986, about 1.5 kilometres from a village in the Qorchin Right Wing Central Banner, a farmer found the five-script paizi discussed above. Based mainly on the Genoese dialect of Italian, it included vocabulary from other Romance languages, Arabic, Greek, and Turkish; see European Union, Directorate-General for Translation, Lingua Franca: Chimera or Reality? Latin is certainly not any kind of a lingua franca in the United Kingdom today. 196 A biography of Ahmad, by H. Franke, may be found in de Rachewiltz, et al., In the Service, pp.539–57: it is interesting to note that his biography in the YS, Vol.15, j.205, p.4558, originally described him as an Uighur, using the old term (more or less obsolete during the Yuan period) Huihe 回纥. A sixth interpretation of this inscription was published a year later. It has been claimed that the Persian sources, particularly Rashīd al-Dīn’s Jāmi’ al-Tavārīkh, are the most important for this study. Since many, if not most, of the Muslims were also Turks, it is entirely reasonable to conclude that there were far fewer Persians than Turks in the Yuan empire. It has often been claimed that Persian was an important lingua franca in the Yuan empire. 123 On the Turkicisation of Central Asia, and the absorption by the Turks of other ethnic groups, who became Turkic speakers, see Golden, History of the Turkic Peoples, especially pp.152–53, on the Turks and trade; and pp.164–65, on the absorption by the Uighurs of eastern Iranians and Tokharians. Morgan, ‘Persian as a Lingua Franca in the Mongol Empire,’ in eds B. Spooner and W.L. J.A. It has also been suggested that they are, in fact, Turkic written in Chaghatai script, that is, the Perso-Arabic script adapted for writing Turkic. 195 See above, note 39; it may be noted that Sayyid Ajall’s grandfather (probably) surrendered to the Mongols ‘at the head of a thousand horsemen’ (de Rachewiltz, et al., In the Service, p.467), which perhaps suggests that he may have been of Turkic extraction. 209 Wang Yun, Qiujian xiansheng daquan wenji, j.88, p.5b. The idea that large numbers of Persians were among the Classified Peoples was rejected three decades ago.[203]. 255 Cai Meibiao et al., ‘Keyou Zhongqi yexun pai,’ p.54. I have looked at all the references that I have been able to trace to this Muslim National College, in the Yuan shi[278] and other sources,[279] and I have found no mention of what languages were studied in it. 136 Useful maps can be found in Y. Bregel, An Historical Atlas of Central Asia (Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp.35, 37. This may be compared with the situation in the Mongolian National College, which ‘by 1315 had places for 100 students, although enrollment sometimes ran to 200 or 300’.[286]. 307 This may actually mean tattooing; see C. Reed, ‘Tattoo in Early China,’ Journal of the American Oriental Society 120 (2000): 360–76, at pp.365–66. Cleaves, ‘The Sino-Mongolian Inscription of 1362 in Memory of Prince Hindu,’ Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 12(1949): 1–133, at p.83. Some who died in a certain place may have been taken back to their home area for burial. It is unlikely that a similar book could be written about Persians in the Yuan empire. 221 de Rachewiltz, ‘Turks in China under the Mongols’. There is also an issue of Extrême orient, extrême occident devoted to ‘Faux et falsification en Chine, au Japon, et au Viêt Nam’ 32 (2010). It means ‘Muslim’ or ‘Islamic’, and, like the mediaeval European term ‘Saracen’, it was applied to people of various backgrounds who were Muslims, including both Persians and Turks (and also Arabs, of course: the Abbasid Caliph is referred to as Huihui Halifa 回回哈里發 in the Yuan shi). Farsi, also known as Persian, is spoken by more than 100 million people and is an official language in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.Generally, spoken Farsi is much different from written Farsi. (rev. 64 This illustration can be viewed online at: , viewed 17 Dec. 2012. 17 A.C. Moule and P. Pelliot, Marco Polo: The Description of the World (London: Routledge, 1938), Vol.1, p.84; H. Yule, Marco Polo, 3rd ed., Vol.1, p.25. Many bestiaries are illustrated, and the pictures commonly show a spotted animal, with no sign of any stripes. 204 Wu Wenliang 吴文良, Quanzhou zongjiao shike 泉州宗教石刻 (Beijing: Kexue chubanshe, 1957). This passage is translated by Leslie, Islam, p.93. [7] One wonders how Yule could have come to such a conclusion, however. The Turkic custom of lacerating the face as a sign of mourning can be traced back several centuries before the Yuan period. Buell and E.N. Thackston), Vol.2, p.384; Boyle, Successors, p.165 and note. [268] Eventually, his son sold it to a professor from Inner Mongolia University, in April 2000, no less than 39 years after its alleged discovery. The Yuan shi records that ‘people from the Hexi 河西 region,[213] Muslims, Uighurs, and so on’, could hold offices up to the rank of darughachi (overseer, or imperial agent) of a Myriarchy (Wanhufu萬户府), in the same way as the Mongols, whereas Jurchens and Khitans were subject to the restrictions on holding high office that were imposed on the Han ren. Arabic texts of the ninth and tenth centuries use ‘Ḥumdān’ for Chang’an, very probably from the same origin. I currently live in Shenzhen and Hong Kong, and I can leave or stay in any city freely. Nevertheless, the surviving inscriptions are mostly in Arabic, with only a small minority in Persian. 199 T.T. It is also recorded that on two occasions, in 1292 and 1293, Muslim merchants offered large pearls to the Qa’an, but Qubilai refused them, saying that pearls were a waste of money, which could be better spent helping the poor. 134 This is Dawson’s suggestion, in John of Plano Carpini, ‘History of the Mongols,’ p.59n. [274] Inscriptions on coins do not necessarily bear much relation to the language(s) actually spoken in the regions where the coins circulated, however. This is when he is recounting how he first arrived at the court of Qubilai Qa’an, with his father and uncle. Other Semu ren were Tanguts, who would have been many of the ‘people from the Hexi region’ just mentioned;[216] Uighurs, and various other Turkic peoples, including Qarluqs, Qanglis, Öngüts, and Qipchaqs; Naimans (who may also have been Turks);[217] Alans from the Caucasus; Tibetans; Kashmiris, and several others. Rav erty), Tabakat-i-Nasiri: A General History of the Muhammadan Dynasties of Asia … (London: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1881), Vol.1, p.383. See Coblin’s remarks in Chapter IV of his Handbook of 'Phags-pa Chinese, especially pp.72–74. 149 Morgan, ‘Persian as a Lingua Franca,’ p.163. As it was in the Ili region, east of Qayalïq, it seems unlikely that it was William’s ‘Equius’; more likely is Pelliot’s other choice, Iki-ögüz, south-west of Qayalïq (see B.D. [69] It seems at least possible that he was here contrasting the Turkic of the nomadic Turks of Anatolia with the, no doubt more sophisticated, Turkic of the Uighurs, who had become settled town-dwellers, engaged in agriculture, with a script for their language, well before the 1200s. They included the Uighurs Buyruq Qaya (during the reign of Ögödei Qa’an),[74] Mungsuz,[75] and Shiban. Indeed, it has been suggested that the New Persian language developed at least partly under Turkic influence. [45] This is mostly correct, although I would question the use of the word ‘nominative’ (but this is not the place to discuss the peculiarities of Chinese grammar). The resemblance of ‘Organum’ to Arkun or Arγun (already discussed above) is striking. There are other references to the Muslim National Institute and to officials who taught the ‘Istifi’ script, as will be seen shortly. There is at least one example of its use by Jin subjects to refer to southern Chinese. The custom of covering some of the front teeth with gold persisted until modern times. 168 Moule and Pelliot, Marco Polo, Vol.1, p.78; Yule, Marco Polo, 3rd ed., Vol.1, p.13, gives ‘Tartar tongue’, but it seems that most manuscripts say ‘Turkish’. Thus, it can be seen that normally, there were probably only some three or four dozen students and teachers in the Muslim National College. The idea that Marco Polo was only really fluent in Persian, and certainly had no knowledge of Chinese, can be traced back at least to the 1870s. Batu, after all, was ruler of the Qanate of Qipchaq, where Turkic (the Cuman language) was predominant. It is repeated by Morgan, quoting Igor de Rachewiltz, who based his opinion on an article by Huang Shijian. 107 Moule and Pelliot, Marco Polo, Vol.1, p.179.

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